Diabetes is a serious lifelong disease that is linked to various health complications that can result in permanent disability or even death.The most serious issue associated with diabetes is high blood sugar levels, which can permanently damage many organs in the body, including the heart, eyes, brain, kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves. Unfortunately, the disease can cause death from heart attacks, strokes, and/or kidney failure.
Diabetes has no known cure. But, with proper lifestyle changes and treatment, you will be able to live a long and healthy life, just like everyone else.
Diabetes occurs in a variety of ways depending on the cause.
Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune disorder. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, which produces insulin. It is unknown what is causing this attack. Type 1 diabetes affects approximately 10% of diabetics.
Type 1 diabetes has no known cause. The immune system, which is normally in charge of fighting dangerous bacteria and viruses, attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, you are left with very little insulin. The sugar gets accumulated in your bloodstream rather than being transported to your cells.
Although there are no specific causes for Type 1 diabetes, it is believed that genetics and external environmental factors play a certain role in it.
Diabetes causes the body to improperly transport glucose from the bloodstream, resulting in elevated glucose levels in the blood and urine. Symptoms include:
- increased thirst
- increased appetite
- increased need to urinate
- weight loss
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body either does not produce enough insulin or your cells do not respond normally to insulin. This is the most prevalent form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes affects up to 95% of diabetics. This type of diabetes mostly affects people who are in their forties or fifties. Type 2 diabetes is also known as insulin-resistant or adult-onset diabetes.
This type affects approximately 10% of diabetics. It may have been referred to as “having a touch of sugar” by your parents or grandparents.
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body’s tissues fail to respond to insulin. Insulin is produced in these individuals, but there is abnormally high resistance to it from the rest of the body, resulting in glucose buildup. One of the most common causes of Type 2 diabetes is obesity. This type of diabetes is often associated with genetic factors as well as a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors include; an unhealthy lifestyle, lack of movement, weight gain, etc. Since Type 2 diabetes runs in families, if one member of the family develops it, the other members are more likely to follow the suit and have it as well.
Type 2 diabetes symptoms can include:
- Increased hunger
- increased thirst
- increased urination
- blurry vision
- sores that are slow to heal
It may also result in recurrent infections. This is because high glucose levels make it more difficult for the body to heal.
Pregnancy causes insulin resistance, which leads to gestational diabetes. It is often found during the mid or last stages of pregnancy. High blood sugar levels in the mother are transmitted to the baby via the placenta, jeopardising the fetus’s growth and development.
Gestational diabetes affects 2% to 10% of all pregnancies. It usually goes away after pregnancy, but it increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in mothers later in life.
The placenta produces hormones to keep the pregnancy going during pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.
Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome the resistance. Your pancreas, on the other hand, cannot always keep up. This results in gestational diabetes because too little glucose enters the cells and too much remains in the blood.
Some women with gestational diabetes have no symptoms at all. To determine whether a woman will develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, a doctor will likely look at her medical history and risk factors.
Gestational diabetes typically manifests itself around the 24th week of pregnancy.
Prediabetes is described as having blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes by your doctor. Prediabetes increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Exercising more and losing excess weight, even as little as 5% to 7% of your body weight, can reduce those risks.
Some types of diabetes, such as type 1, are caused by factors beyond your control. Others, such as type 2, can be avoided by making better food choices, increasing physical activity, and losing weight.
Consult your doctor about potential diabetes risks. If you are at risk, have your blood sugar checked and follow your doctor’s recommendations for blood sugar management. The earlier you get diabetes treatment in Kerala, the sooner it can be treated and controlled.